which commander is known as the lady of the mercians

According to Nick Higham, "successive medieval and modern writers were quite captivated by her" and her brother's reputation has suffered unfairly in comparison. [6], The most important source for history in this period is the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle but Æthelflæd is almost ignored in the standard West Saxon version, in what F. T. Wainwright calls "a conspiracy of silence". The members with the know how for Rise of Kingdoms, You can also check out our guide for this game here, House Flipper: Home Design, Renovation Games, Tower Craft 3D - Idle Block Building Game, Archer's Tale - Adventures of Rogue Archer, Ninja’s Creed: 3D Sniper Shooting Assassin Game, Selecting a Starting Commander and Nation. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, (d. 12 June 918) was the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and his queen, Ealhswith. The Great Danish Army, or the Viking Great Army, known to the Anglo-Saxons as the Great Heathen Army (Old English: mycel hæþen here), was a coalition of Norse warriors, originating in Denmark but including warbands from Norway & Sweden, who came together under a unified command to invade the four Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that constituted England in AD 865. As the U.S. election result proved too close to call on Wednesday morning, political figures and observers around the world reacted to the uncertainty just as Americans did. The ‘Lady of the Mercians’, as she preferred to be known, lived in a world of male-dominated kingdoms. On their way back they were caught by an English army in Staffordshire and their army was destroyed at the Battle of Tettenhall, opening the way for the recovery of the Danish Midlands and East Anglia over the next decade. [12][18], Æthelred's descent is unknown. [39] The Mercian rulers built a new minster in Gloucester and, although the building was small, it was embellished on a grand scale, with rich sculpture. Æthelflæd agreed and for some time they were peaceful. Other sources confirm that the Norse were driven out of Dublin in 902 and that Æthelflæd fortified Chester in 907. The marriage may have taken place earlier, perhaps when he submitted to Alfred following the recovery of London in 886. [16] Æthelflæd was first recorded as Æthelred's wife in a charter of 887, when he granted two estates to the see of Worcester "with the permission and sign-manual of King Alfred" and the attestors included "Æthelflæd conjux". In 877 the Vikings partitioned Mercia, taking the eastern regions for themselves and allowing Ceolwulf to keep the western ones. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. He was described by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as "a foolish king's thegn" who was a puppet of the Vikings. Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians (r. 881-911 CE). King Alfred the Great of Wessex fought back. William of Malmesbury wrote that their burial places were found in the south porticus during building works in the early twelfth century. [81] Ryan believes that the Mercian rulers "had a considerable but ultimately subordinate share of royal authority".[65]. Among the towns where she built defences were Wednesbury, Bridgnorth, Tamworth, Stafford, Warwick, Chirbury and Runcorn. [79] In Wainwright's view, she was ignored in West Saxon sources for fear that recognition of her achievements would encourage Mercian separatism: [Æthelflæd] played a vital role in England in the first quarter of the tenth century. Aethelflaed or Ethelfleda,also known as the Lady of the Mercians. [42][43] Heighway and Michael Hare wrote: In the age when English scholarship and religion reached their lowest ebb, Mercia and in particular the lower Severn valley seem to have maintained traditional standards of learning. Most historians believe that Æthelred was incapacitated in his last years. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians (c. 870 – 12 June 918) ruled Mercia in the English Midlands from 911 until her death. Aethelflaed rebuilds and reforms Mercia in cooperation with her brother Edward of Wessex. It is in this context that the establishment of a new minster at Gloucester by Æthelred and Æthelflæd is to be seen. The Lady of the Mercians Fights the Danes. She, too, was accused of murder, but was also, like many of the royal women, literate and highly-educated. Encontre diversos livros escritos por Grieser, Marjory A com ótimos preços. Viking Invasions . In 911 AD, Aethelred died, and Aethelflaed became the sole ruler of Mercia, adopting the title Lady of Mercia. Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians (r. 881-911 CE). [21], Compared to the rest of England, much of English Mercia —Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire and Shropshire —was unusually stable in the Viking age. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians (c. 870 – 12 June 918) ruled Mercia in the English Midlands from 911 until her death. Æthelred and Æthelflæd fortified Worcester, gave generous donations to Mercian churches and built a new minster in Gloucester. She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the … She is known as an effective military commander, diplomat, and a benevolent ruler. Eldest child of King Alfred of Wessex, Aethelflaed was cherished by her father and received an education normally reserved for a royal son. [36] Æthelred was well enough to witness charters at a meeting of Edward's court in 903, but he did not witness any later surviving charter.[37]. Derby was the first to fall to the English; she lost "four of her thegns who were dear to her" in the battle. [12] According to the Mercian Register, Æthelflæd was buried in the east porticus. [King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians] [By: Grieser, Marjory A.] Her probable date of birth is 870 or 871 CE based on the approximate date of her marriage. She may have been the de facto ruler for a few years during her husband's illness. became ruler of western Mercia in 882, he decided to try and retake control over his lands. She was the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and his wife Ealhswith. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. [King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians] [By: Grieser, Marjory A.] Boudica was known as the Celtic Rose. Furthermore, the politic… [January, 2010] [January, 2010] [Grieser, Marjory A.] However, when Æthelred (not to be confused with Lady Æthelflæd, whom this article is about!) Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians (r. 881-911 CE). She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the foundation for the reign of the first recognized English king, Aethelstan, who was king of the Anglo-Saxons 924-927 CE and King of the English 927-939 CE. Lisez des commentaires honnêtes et non biaisés sur les produits de la part nos utilisateurs. After her death, west Mercian coin reverses were again the same as those on coins produced in Wessex. She may also have translated the relics of the martyred Northumbrian prince Ealhmund from Derby to Shrewsbury. Découvrez des commentaires utiles de client et des classements de commentaires pour King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians sur Amazon.fr. on Amazon.com. To the West Saxon version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Æthelflæd was merely King Edward's sister, whereas for the Mercian Register she was Lady of the Mercians. The queen and various others are taken, she presumably being the wife of Gryffydd, although precise dates for most of Brycheiniog's kings are unavailable. Known to history as the Lady of the Mercians, she earned a reputation as a competent general and was feared by her enemies. No similar offer is known to have been made to Edward. Her statue stands near Tamworth Castle. Æthelflæd benefited from a Mercian tradition of queenly importance, and was able to play a key role in the history of the early tenth century as Lady of the Mercians, which would not have been possible in Wessex. [12] Tim Clarkson, who describes Æthelflæd as "renowned as a competent war-leader", regards the victory at Derby as "her greatest triumph". Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. And Edward very probably hoped for that. Marios Costambeys dates Æthelflæd's birth to the early 870s. [51], Æthelflæd had already fortified an unknown location called Bremesburh in 910 and in 912 she built defences at Bridgnorth to cover a crossing of the River Severn. [38] The remains of the royal Northumbrian saint Oswald were seized and taken from his resting place in Bardney Abbey in Lincolnshire to Gloucester. [38], On her husband's death in 911, Æthelflæd became Myrcna hlædige, "Lady of the Mercians". [54] At the end of the year, the East Anglian Danes submitted to Edward. Gwent in south-east Wales was already under West Saxon lordship but, in the view of Charles-Edwards, this passage shows that the other Welsh kingdoms were under Mercian lordship until Edward took direct power over Mercia. She was the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and his wife Ealhswith. But it also contains, especially for our period, much genuine historical information which seems to have its roots in a contemporary narrative. Which commander is known as barbarossa?. After her husband's death, the people of Mercia gave her the title Lady of the Mercians, a feminine version of the title that her husband had held. They returned with the remains of the royal Northumbrian saint, Oswald, which were translated to the new Gloucester minster. Ready to decisively engage the enemy in close quarter combat, Mercians are highly skilled with sophisticated weapon systems ranging from the SA80 A2 rifle through to the Warrior Armoured Infantry Fighting Vehicle with its 30mm canon. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells how she continued her father’s policy of building fortresses, from which soldiers could go out to fight the Danes. For other people called Æthelflæd, see, 9th and 10th-century ruler of Mercia in England. Aethelflaed leads her armies to victory over the Vikings at Derby. In January 878 Viking invaders swooped down on the palace at Chippenham in Wiltshire where Alfred and his family were staying. In Keynes's view, "the conclusion seems inescapable that the Alfredian polity of the kingship 'of the Anglo-Saxons' persisted in the first quarter of the tenth century, and that the Mercians were thus under Edward's rule from the beginning of his reign". Alfred adopted the title King of the English, claiming to rule all English people not living in areas under Viking control. Æthelflæd died at the height of her power, and is the only female ruler in British history to be succeeded by her daughter. Lisez des commentaires honnêtes et non biaisés sur les produits de la part nos utilisateurs. The Kingdom of Mercia was a state in the English Midlands from the 6th century to the 10th century. 34 1 REPORT [33] Æthelflæd re-founded Chester as a burh and she is believed to have enhanced its Roman defences by running walls from the north-west and south-east corners of the fort to the River Dee. [67] Edward died in 924 at Farndon in Cheshire a few days after putting down a rebellion by Mercians and Welshmen at Chester.[68]. At about the age of nine she received a different kind of education, in the harsh realities of her turbulent times. Both sides claimed victory but Ragnall was able to establish himself as ruler of Northumbria. In 917 she sent an army to capture Derby, the first of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw to fall to the English, a victory described by Tim Clarkson as "her greatest triumph". [35] After Æthelflæd's death, Edward encountered fierce resistance to his efforts to consolidate his control of the north-west and he died there in 924, shortly after suppressing a local rebellion. For seven years after her husband’s death, Aethelflaed continued to fight to keep the freedom of Mercia. Wainwright argues that he probably sent his oldest son Æthelstan to be brought up in Mercia, to make him more acceptable to the Mercians as king; Æthelflæd does not appear to have tried to find a husband for her daughter, who must have been nearly thirty by 918. In 896 a meeting of the Mercian witan was held in the royal hall at Kingsholm, just outside the town. Æthelflaed, lady of the Mercians, now invades and captures the royal domain at Llangorse, on 19 June. Dame is an honorific title and the feminine form of address for the honour of damehood in many Christian chivalric orders, as well as the British honours system and those of several other Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, with the masculine form of address being sir.It is the female equivalent for knighthood, which is traditionally granted to males. [14] Æthelflæd was thus half-Mercian and the alliance between Wessex and Mercia was sealed by her marriage to Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians. For some two hundred years from the mid-7th century onwards it was the dominant member of the Heptarchy and consequently the most powerful of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. A translation of the Mercian Register is an appendix in Tim Clarkson's biography of Æthelflæd. A building suitable for a royal mausoleum has been found by archaeological investigation at the east end of the church and this may have been St Oswald's burial place. [3] The situation was transformed the following year when Alfred won a decisive victory over the Danes at the Battle of Edington. - D851WN from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. [11], Æthelflæd was born around 870, the oldest child of King Alfred the Great and his Mercian wife, Ealhswith, who was a daughter of Æthelred Mucel, ealdorman of the Gaini, one of the tribes of Mercia. By the end of ninth century Aethelred and Aethelflaed had fortified Worcester and granted the church of Worcester a half share of the rights of lordship over the city. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians (c. 870 – 12 June 918) ruled Mercia in the English Midlands from 911 until her death. Edward did not conquer the Viking Kingdom of York in southern Northumbria. [12] Ian Walker suggests that Æthelflæd accepted this loss of territory in return for recognition by her brother of her position in Mercia. [4], Ceolwulf is not recorded after 879. Her birth date is not known but it is estimated to be around 870 and she was Alfred’s eldest child. As the rights of lordship had previously belonged fully to the church, this represented the beginning of transfer from episcopal to secular control of the city. The Mercian infantryman is at the heart of the action, providing the fighting element of the British Army's forces. And the way in which she used her influence helped to make possible the unification of England under kings of the West Saxon royal house. Find answers for Rise of Kingdoms on AppGamer.com In the year 911, Aethelflaed, known as the Lady of the Mercians, took over the command of the kingdom of Mercia after her husband’s death. Placement next to the saint would have been a prestigious burial location for Æthelred and Æthelflæd. Considered an English classic, the poem is an example of Keats' poetic preoccupation with love and death. [57], Little is known of Æthelflæd's relations with the Welsh. In 915 Chirbury was fortified to guard a route from Wales and Runcorn on the River Mersey. King Aethelred dies; Aethelflaed becomes sole monarch in Mercia, known as Lady of the Mercians. In 918 Leicester surrendered without a fight. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians Æthelflæd was born into a world without a united England and grew up with her father, Alfred the Great, constantly in conflict with the neighboring Vikings. But Æthelflæd had clearly proved her right and ability to rule; and for the Mercian nobility, she offered the only chance to avoid extinction at the hands of the West Saxons. As noted before, Aethelred and Aethelflaed had only one daughter, and the former did not have any known close male relatives. [62], Æthelflæd died at Tamworth on 12 June 918 and her body was carried 75 miles (121 km) to Gloucester, where she was buried with her husband in their foundation, St Oswald's Minster. Æthelred died in 911 and Æthelflæd then ruled Mercia as Lady of the Mercians. [28], Æthelred's health probably declined at some stage in the decade after Alfred died in 899, and Æthelflæd may have become the de facto ruler of Mercia by 902. “Aethel” means “noble” but the meaning of “flaed”, again according to Arman, is unclear but “could mea… A key role in this fight was played by Alfred's oldest child, Aethelflaed, known as the Lady of the Mercians by her own people. She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the foundation for the reign of the first recognized English king, Aethelstan, who was king of the Anglo- Saxons 924-927 CE and King of the English 927-939 CE. 918 CE. [69] Irish and Welsh annals described her as a queen and the Annals of Ulster, which ignore the deaths of Alfred and Edward, described her as famosissima regina Saxonum (renowned Saxon queen). Compre online King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians, de Grieser, Marjory A na Amazon. [60] No charters of Edward survive for the period between 910 and his death in 924,[61] whereas two survive in Æthelflæd's sole name, S 224, possibly dating to 914 and S 225, dated 9 September 915, issued at Weardbyrig, one of the burhs she built at an unidentified location. She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the foundation for the reign of the first recognized English king, Aethelstan, who was king of the Anglo- Saxons 924-927 CE and King of the English 927-939 CE. [65] Æthelflæd died a few months too early to see the final conquest of the southern Danelaw by Edward. The only recorded event took place in 916, when she sent an expedition to avenge the murder of a Mercian abbot and his companions; her men destroyed the royal crannog of Brycheiniog on Llangorse Lake and captured the queen and thirty-three of her companions. [40] It was initially dedicated to St Peter but when Oswald's remains were brought to Gloucester in 909, Æthelflæd had them translated from Bardney to the new minster, which was renamed St Oswald's in his honour. He may have been misinformed about the position but it is also possible that the tombs were moved from their prestigious position next to the saint, when the couple became less known over time or when tenth-century kings acted to minimise the honour paid to their Mercian predecessors. According to Pauline Stafford, "like ... Elizabeth I she became a wonder to later ages". [55] According to the Three Fragments, in 918 Æthelflæd led an army of Scots and Northumbrian English against forces led by the Norse Viking leader Ragnall at the Battle of Corbridge in Northumbria. Tier Lists and Best Commanders updated May 2020 They granted the church of Worcester a half share of the rights of lordship over the city, covering land rents and the proceeds of justice, and in return the cathedral community agreed in perpetuity to dedicate a psalm to them three times a day and a mass and thirty psalms every Saturday. Aethelflaed dies; Mercia merges with Wessex under King Edward the Elder. Stafford argues that Æthelred and Æthelflæd exercised most or all of the powers of a monarch after Alfred's death but it would have been a provocative act formally to claim regality, especially after Æthelwold's rebellion. [52][d], In 917 invasions by three Viking armies failed as Æthelflæd sent an army which captured Derby and the territory around it. In 911 Aethelred was killed in battle with the Danes, and Aethelflaed became the political and military ruler of the Mercians. As the Lady of the Mercians she not only held her territories against the invading Vikings but extended them, and would come to change the face of England. They then moved on Mercia, where they spent the winter of 867–868. Family Tree Details. However, when Æthelred (not to be confused with Lady Æthelflæd, whom this article is about!) Encontre diversos livros escritos por Grieser, Marjory A com ótimos preços. By 878, most of England was under Danish Viking rule – East Anglia and Northumbria having been conquered, and Mercia partitioned between the English and the Vikings – but in that year Alfred won a crucial victory at the Battle of Edington. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians Æthelflæd was born into a world without a united England and grew up with her father, Alfred the Great, constantly in conflict with the neighboring Vikings. [75] Alex Woolf concurs[76] and Pauline Stafford describes Æthelflæd as "the last Mercian queen", referred to in charters in such terms as "by the gift of Christ's mercy ruling the government of the Mercians". If you are still looking for help with this game we have more questions and answers for you to check. In early 918, Æthelflæd gained possession of Leicester without opposition and most of the local Danish army submitted to her. She was praised by Anglo-Norman chroniclers such as William of Malmesbury, who described her as "a powerful accession to [Edward's] party, the delight of his subjects, the dread of his enemies, a woman of enlarged soul". After Æthelred's death in 911 Æthelflæd ruled as "Lady of the Mercians", but Alfred's successor as King of the Anglo-Saxons, Edward the Elder (r. 899–924), took control of London and Oxford, which Alfred had placed under Æthelred's control. [5] Alfred died in 899 and Edward's claim to the throne was disputed by Æthelwold, son of Alfred's elder brother. Our Role . [6][e] She was succeeded as Lady of the Mercians by her daughter, Ælfwynn, but in early December 918 Edward deposed her and took Mercia under his control. [26], At the end of the ninth century, Æthelred and Æthelflæd fortified Worcester, with the permission of King Alfred and at the request of Bishop Werferth, described in the charter as "their friend". She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the … The updated content was reintegrated into the Wikipedia page under a CC-BY-SA-3.0 license (2018). King Burgred of Mercia was joined by King Æthelred of Wessex and his brother, the future King Alfred, for a combined attack on the Vikings, who refused an engagement; in the end the Mercians bought peace with them. [7] Brief details of her actions were preserved in a pro-Mercian version of the Chronicle known as the Mercian Register or the Annals of Æthelflæd; although it is now lost, elements were incorporated into several surviving versions of the Chronicle. Mercians (r. 881-911 CE). Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. This is one of the few times in Alfred’s lifetime when the couple were known to have acted jointly (generally Aethelred acted on his own). Æthelflæd proved her worth as a leader and military commander earning her the respect of the Mercians. A few months later, the leading men of Danish-ruled York offered to pledge their loyalty to Æthelflæd, probably to secure her support against Norse raiders from Ireland, but she died on 12 June 918, before she could take advantage of the offer. Related Episodes . She was exceptional for many reasons. In 913 she built forts at Tamworth to guard against the Danes in Leicester, and in Stafford to cover access from the Trent Valley. Read on to learn more about her life and legacy. The following year, the Vikings conquered East Anglia. Æthelflæd was born around 870 at the height of the Viking invasions of England. Aethelflaed became a hunted refugee, along w… In the mid-880s, Alfred sealed the strategic alliance between the surviving English kingdoms by marrying Æthelflæd to Æthelred. [70][71] She was also praised by Anglo-Norman historians such as John of Worcester and William of Malmesbury, who described her as "a powerful accession to [Edward's] party, the delight of his subjects, the dread of his enemies, a woman of enlarged soul". In 909 Edward sent a West Saxon and Mercian force to the northern Danelaw, where it raided for five weeks. The accession of a female ruler in Mercia is described by the historian Ian Walker as "one of the most unique events in early medieval history". [1], In 865 the Viking Great Heathen Army landed in East Anglia and used this as a starting point for an invasion. [49], When Æthelred died, Edward took control of the Mercian towns of London and Oxford and their hinterlands, which Alfred had put under Mercian control. Tim Clarkson's biography has a detailed discussion of Æthelflæd' burhs. Myrcna hlæfdige, Lady of the Mercians. She is known as an effective military commander, diplomat, and a benevolent ruler. [44], Mercia had a long tradition of venerating royal saints and this was enthusiastically supported by Æthelred and Æthelflæd. [15] They are mentioned in Alfred's will, which probably dates to the 880s. Æthelflæd was born around 870 at … She was the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, king of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and his wife Ealhswith. [58] According to a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle strongly sympathetic to Edward the Elder, after Æthelflæd's death "the kings among the Welsh, Hywel and Clydog and Idwal, and all the Welsh people sought to have [Edward] as their lord". It did not suffer major attacks and it did not come under great pressure from Wessex. This story is a fictionalized account of the life of Lady Aethelflaed. In 883 he made a grant with the consent of King Alfred, thus acknowledging Alfred's lordship. Noté /5: Achetez King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians de Grieser, Marjory A: ISBN: 9781608443062 sur amazon.fr, des millions de livres livrés chez vous en 1 jour In the 890s, Æthelred and Edward, Alfred's son and future successor, fought off more Viking attacks. [12] The relics gave the church great prestige as Oswald had been one of the most important founding saints of Anglo-Saxon Christianity as well as a ruling monarch, and the decision to translate his relics to Gloucester shows the importance of the town to Æthelred and Æthelflæd, who were buried in St Oswald's Minster. [12] In the late ninth century Gloucester had become a burh with a street plan similar to Winchester, and Æthelred and Æthelflæd had repaired its ancient Roman defences. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. [56] In the Three Fragments, Æthelflæd also formed a defensive alliance with the Scots and the Strathclyde British, a claim accepted by Clarkson. Aethelflaed or Ethelfleda,also known as the Lady of the Mercians. Which commander is known as the Conqueror of Chaos? No need to register, buy now! Victoria Thompson argues that if Æthelflæd had chosen Edward's royal mausoleum in Winchester as the burial place for her husband and herself, that would have emphasised Mercia's subordinate status, whereas a traditional Mercian royal burial place such as Repton would have been a provocative declaration of independence; Gloucester, near the border with Wessex, was a compromise between the two. In Nick Higham's view, medieval and modern writers have been so captivated by her that Edward's reputation has suffered unfairly in comparison. 00:59:59; Æthelflæd is one of the most remarkable and unfairly forgotten figures in English history. In 911, Æthelred died. She was not just a regent until the next male heir came of age but was viewed as the head of government by her own people. 918 CE. This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights or Dames by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which do not carry pre-nominal styles.. Use of pre-nominal styles and post-nominal initials. King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians: Grieser, Marjory A: Amazon.com.mx: Libros. "[9] She was praised by Anglo-Norman chroniclers such as William of Malmesbury and John of Worcester[10] and she has received more attention from historians than any other secular woman in Anglo-Saxon England. Her birth date is not known but it is estimated to be around 870 and she was Alfred’s eldest child. -Image ID: D851WN [12] According to Frank Stenton, Æthelflæd led Mercian armies on expeditions, which she planned. She had been raised in a royal court, but now she had to command respect in her own right - not just the respect of her own people, but the respect of potential opponents, who would soon learn that she had all her father’s fire. Æthelwold joined forces with the Vikings when he was unable to get sufficient support in Wessex, and his rebellion only ended with his death in battle in December 902. Æthelred played a major role in fighting off renewed Viking attacks in the 890s, together with Æthelflæd's brother, the future King Edward the Elder. [48] In Wessex, royal women were not allowed to play any political role; Alfred's wife was not granted the title of queen and was never a witness to charters. [46] In 910 the Danes retaliated against the English attack of the previous year by invading Mercia, raiding as far as Bridgnorth in Shropshire. Æthelred's health probably declined early in the next decade, after which it is likely that Æthelflæd was mainly responsible for the government of Mercia. [24] In 883 Æthelred granted privileges to Berkeley Abbey and in the 890s he and Æthelflæd issued a charter in favour of the church of Worcester. became ruler of western Mercia in 882, he decided to try and retake control over his lands. [17] Æthelred was much older than Æthelflæd and they had one known child, a daughter called Ælfwynn. A key role in this fight was played by Alfred's oldest child, Aethelflaed, known as the Lady of the Mercians by her own people. Founder, Fighter, Saxon Queen: Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians - Ebook written by Margaret C. Jones. [59], No coins were issued with the name of Æthelred or Æthelflæd on them, but in the 910s silver pennies were minted in west Mercian towns with unusual ornamental designs on the reverse and this may have reflected Æthelflæd's desire to distinguish specie issued under her control from that of her brother. [80], Simon Keynes points out that all coins were issued in Edward's name, and while the Mercian rulers were able to issue some charters on their own authority, others acknowledged Edward's lordship. Æthelflæd witnessed charters of Æthelred in 888, 889 and 896. In 886 Alfred occupied the Mercian town of London, which had been in Viking hands. Celtic visions of Æthelred and Æthelflæd as king and queen certainly offer a different, and equally valid, contemporary take on the complex politics of this transition to a new English state. Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians (869/870-918) Æthelflæd, has been described as 'our greatest woman-general', was was born around 864, the eldest daughter of Alfred the Great, King of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex, and his queen, Ealhswith. Æthelflæd is known as the Lady of the Mercians Search for more answers for Rise of Kingdoms or ask your own here. Alfred had built a network of fortified burhs and in the 910s Edward and Æthelflæd embarked on a programme of extending them. After her death in 918 Edward the Elder was able to extend his rule of Mercia as well as Wessex. Only then did Mercia's independent existence come to an end.[78]. But her reputation has suffered from bad publicity, or rather from a conspiracy of silence among her West Saxon contemporaries. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. King Alfred the Great of Wessex fought back. Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians 3 years ago admin . Hello, Sign in. When Æthelflæd died in 918, Ælfwynn, her daughter by Æthelred, succeeded as 'Second Lady of the Mercians', but within six months Edward had deprived her of all authority in Mercia and taken her into Wessex. Découvrez des commentaires utiles de client et des classements de commentaires pour King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians sur Amazon.fr. Henry of Huntingdon's poem was translated, "freely" according to Paul Szarmach, "Gloucester funeral procession honours Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians", "Aethelflaed, Tamworth's Warrior Queen, Installation and opening-event", "Luke Perry, artist, on making Aethlflaed, Warrior Queen of Tamworth", "Æthelflæd [Ethelfleda] (d. 918), ruler of the Mercians", "Æthelred (d. 911), ruler of the Mercians", "Edward [called Edward the Elder] (870s?–924), king of the Anglo-Saxons", WikiJournal of Humanities/Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, List of English words of Old Norse origin, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Æthelflæd&oldid=989605249, Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literature, Wikipedia articles published in WikiJournal of Humanities, Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed literature (W2J), Burials at St Oswald's Priory, Gloucester, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from open access publications, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 23:36. Æthelflæd was born at the height of the Viking invasions of England. ... she laid the foundations of the England we know today. Viking Invasions . As Alfred planned the marriage ensured that even after his death in 898, and the accession of Edward the Elder the alliance between Wessex and Merica remained strong. Mercia was the dominant kingdom in southern England in the eighth century and maintained its position until it suffered a decisive defeat by Wessex at the Battle of Ellandun in 825. Instead, she became one of the most powerful and influential rulers in Dark Age Britain. Her name most likely means “overflowing with nobility” according to scholar Joanna Arman (32). Her father married her to Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians. [c] According to the Three Fragments, the Norse (Norwegian) Vikings were expelled from Dublin and then made an abortive attack on Wales. King Alfred’s daughter, Aethelflaed, was married to Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians. After her husband's death, Æthelflæd ruled Mercia on her own, leading the army to war and working with her brother to achieve their father's aims. Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians. [19] In the view of Ian Walker: "He was a royal ealdorman whose power base lay in the south-west of Mercia in the former kingdom of the Hwicce around Gloucester". Stafford sees her as a "warrior queen", "Like ... Elizabeth I she became a wonder to later ages. Which of the following is not part of Mexico's flag. [34] Simon Ward, who excavated an Anglo-Saxon site in Chester, sees the later prosperity of the town as owing much to the planning of Æthelflæd and Edward. [25] In 901 Æthelflæd and Æthelred gave land and a golden chalice weighing thirty mancuses to the shrine of Saint Mildburg at Much Wenlock church. The East Anglians were forced to buy peace and the following year the Vikings invaded Northumbria, where they appointed a puppet king in 867. In the Midlands and the North she came to dominate the political scene. Soon afterwards the English-controlled western half of Mercia came under the rule of Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians, who accepted Alfred's overlordship. Try Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Founder, Fighter, Saxon Queen: Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians. Æthelstan took control of it in 927 but after his death in 939 the kingdom was contested until the expulsion of the last Norse king in 954. [86], This article was submitted to WikiJournal of Humanities for external academic peer review in 2018 (reviewer reports). [a] Information about Æthelflæd's career is also preserved in the Irish chronicle known as the Three Fragments. [50] Alfred had constructed a network of fortified burhs in Wessex, and Edward and Æthelflæd now embarked on a programme of extending them to consolidate their defences and provide bases for attacks on the Vikings. Æthelflæd was born at the height of the Viking invasions of England. This should have been the end of Æthelflæd’s leadership. Thereafter the two kingdoms became allies, which was to be an important factor in English resistance to the Vikings. Nothing is known of Aethelflaed’s youth and she only enters the pages of history at the age of 15 or 16 when she was married to Aethelred. Æthelflæd, described only as "my eldest daughter", received an estate and 100 mancuses, while Æthelred, the only ealdorman to be mentioned by name, received a sword worth 100 mancuses. This was the only occasion in Alfred's lifetime when they are known to have acted jointly; generally Æthelred acted on his own, usually acknowledging the permission of King Alfred. Æthelflæd is known as the Lady of the Mercians, If you are still looking for help with this game we have more questions and answers for you to check.Tier Lists and Best Commanders updated May 2020, We have similar questions to this one that may have more answers for you: Show all. King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians: Grieser, Marjory A: Amazon.com.mx: Libros. The title was derived from the title of a 15th-century poem by Alain Chartier called La Belle Dame sans Mercy.. Noté /5: Achetez King Alfred's Daughter: The Lady of the Mercians de Grieser, Marjory A: ISBN: 9781608443062 sur amazon.fr, des millions de livres livrés chez vous en 1 jour Defences were built before 914 at Hereford, and probably Shrewsbury and two other fortresses, at Scergeat and Weardbyrig, which have not been located. 917 CE. After the death of her husband, Athelflaed was known as 'Lady of the Mercians' as she ruled over Mercia in her own right. [83], The 1,100th anniversary of the death of Æthelflaed was marked throughout 2018 in Tamworth with a number of major events, including the unveiling of a new six-metre statue,[84] the creation of the town's biggest ever piece of community art,[85] a major commemorative church service, talks, a special guided walk, commemorative ale and an academic conference weekend drawing academics and delegates from all over the world. He claimed that she declined to have sex after the birth of her only child because it was "unbecoming of the daughter of a king to give way to a delight which, after a time, produced such painful consequences". [63], The choice of burial place was symbolic. Which commander is known as the Lady of the Mercians? He argues that King Edward was anxious not to encourage Mercian separatism and did not wish to publicise his sister's accomplishments, in case she became a symbol of Mercian claims. "La Belle Dame sans Merci" ("The Beautiful Lady Without Mercy") is a ballad produced by the English poet John Keats in 1819. Mamie Eisenhower, American first lady (1953–61), the wife of Dwight (“Ike”) Eisenhower, 34th president of the United States and supreme commander of the Allied forces in western Europe during World War II. Æthelflæd was succeeded by her daughter Ælfwynn, but in December Edward took personal control of Mercia and carried Ælfwynn off to Wessex. Shortly afterwards the Viking leaders of York offered her their loyalty, but she died on 12 June 918 before she could take advantage of the offer, and a few months later Edward completed the conquest of Mercia. Æthelstan, the eldest son of Edward the Elder and future king of England, was brought up in their court and, in the view of Martin Ryan, certainly joined their campaigns against the Vikings. Tier Lists and Best Commanders updated May 2020 Did this help? [13] Many Mercians disliked the subordination of their ancient kingdom to Wessex, and Wainwright describes the Mercian annalist's description of the deposition of Ælfwynn as "heavy with resentment". In 903 a Mercian ealdorman "petitioned King Edward, and also Æthelred and Æthelflæd, who then held rulership and power over the race of the Mercians under the aforesaid king". He then received the submission of all English not under Viking control and handed control of London over to Æthelred. Hywel Dda was king of Dyfed in south-west Wales, Clydog ap Cadell probably king of Powys in the north-east, and Idwal ab Anarawd king of Gwynedd in the north-west. She was not just a regent until the next male heir came of age but was viewed as the head of government by her own people. [10] In the twelfth century, Henry of Huntingdon paid her his own tribute: Some historians believe that Æthelred and Æthelflæd were independent rulers. Keynes argues that a new polity was created when Æthelred submitted to Alfred in the 880s, covering Wessex and English (western) Mercia. July 18th, 2016 ; by specialcollections; in ... described in the early tenth-century document known as the Burghal Hidage, served as armed networks to prevent attacks from neighboring bases in Ireland and Wales. This story is a fictionalized account of the life of Lady Aethelflaed. The town was one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw, together with Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham and Stamford. Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians (r. 881-911 CE). She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the foundation for the reign of the first recognized English king, Aethelstan, who was king of the Anglo-Saxons 924-927 CE and King of the English 927-939 CE. Her statue stands near Tamworth Castle. What happens to the captives is not known. Which commander is known as barbarossa?. She had been raised in a royal court, but now she had to command respect in her own right - not just the respect of her own people, but the respect of potential opponents, who would soon learn that she had all her father’s fire. Additionally, the earlier Mercian royal dynasties seemed to have either died out or were collaborating with the Vikings. Find answers for Rise of Kingdoms on AppGamer.com "[77] According to Charles Insley, The assumption that Mercia was in some sort of limbo in this period, subordinate to Wessex and waiting to be incorporated into "England" cannot be sustained ... Æthelred's death in 911 changed little, for his formidable wife carried on as sole ruler of Mercia until her death in 918. Charters show the Mercian leaders supporting the revival by their generosity to monastic communities. Wainwright sees Æthelflæd as willingly accepting a subordinate role in a partnership with her brother and agreeing to his plan of unification of Wessex and Mercia under his rule. [b] Ealhswith's mother, Eadburh, was a member of the Mercian royal house, probably a descendant of King Coenwulf (796–821). The ‘Lady of the Mercians’, as she preferred to be known, lived in a world of male-dominated kingdoms. King Alfred the Great of Wessex fought back. Eleven centuries ago, Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, died and was buried in Gloucester. When this failed they applied to Æthelflæd, her husband being ill, for permission to settle near Chester. His successor as the ruler of the English western half of Mercia, Æthelflæd's husband Æthelred, is first seen in 881 when, according to the historian of medieval Wales, Thomas Charles-Edwards, he led an unsuccessful Mercian invasion of the north Welsh Kingdom of Gwynedd. Æthelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, was a queen in all but name, while few have heard of Queen Seaxburh, who ruled Wessex, or Queen Cynethryth, who issued her own coinage. Aethelflaed was a supreme negotiator, a powerful and ruthless war-leader, and a … She is one of the few known women who not only held a role within the household as mother and lady – and within the court, as daughter and wife to kings – but also wielded power on the battlefield. The Lady of the Mercians book. Which of the Babylonian Codes of Law was the first full set of written laws in recorded .. The historian Ann Williams regards this view as partial and distorted, that he was accepted as a true king by the Mercians and by King Alfred. She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the foundation for the reign of the first r… She is best known as the “Lady of the Mercians” who defeated the Vikings and established English rule which would be consolidated by her brother Edward the Elder (r. 899-924 CE) and lay the foundation for the reign of the first recognized English king, Aethelstan, who was king of the Anglo-Saxons 924-927 CE and King of the English 927-939 CE. [82], In June 2018, Æthelflæd's funeral was re-enacted in front of a crowd of 10,000 people in Gloucester, as part of a series of living history events marking the 1,100th anniversary of her death. In the Handbook of British Chronology, David Dumville refers to "Q. Æthelflæd" and comments, "The titles given her by all sources (hlæfdige, regina) imply that she wielded royal power and authority". The success of Edward's campaigns against the Danes depended to a great extent upon her cooperation. It seems that there was no real serious opposition to Aethelflaed being the sole ruler of the kingdom, despite her being a woman. The land was valuable, including most of the city's usable river frontage, and control of it enabled the Mercian rulers to dominate over and profit from the city. In the year 911, Aethelflaed, known as the Lady of the Mercians, took over the command of the kingdom of Mercia after her husband’s death. 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